However, when UV-radiation is strong as in regions close to the equator the lower concentration of melanin leads to several medical disadvantages, such as a higher risk of skin cancer. In Britain, redheads are also sometimes referred to disparagingly as "carrot tops" and "carrot heads". A History of the Redhead, The Volga region has more gingers per capita than anywhere else in the world, bar Ireland. Studies by Bodmer and Cavalli-Sforza hypothesized that lighter skin pigmentation prevents rickets in colder climates by encouraging higher levels of vitamin D production and also allows the individual to retain heat better than someone with darker skin. In , a year-old was stabbed in the back for "being ginger".
The genetics of red hair, discovered in , appear to be associated with the melanocortin-1 receptor MC1R , which is found on chromosome In , a year-old was stabbed in the back for "being ginger". Portrait of a Lady, ca. The blonde map of Europe. Both derive from the same precursor molecule, POMC , and are structurally similar. Just per cent of the human population possesses the ginger gene. Even if both parents do not have red hair themselves, both can be carriers for the gene and have a redheaded child. The lower melanin concentration in skin confers the advantage that a sufficient concentration of important Vitamin D can be produced under low light conditions. The comedian " Carrot Top " uses this stage name. Red hair is also common among Ashkenazi Jews. Theophilus Presbyter describes how the blood of a red-haired young man is necessary to create gold from copper , in a mixture with the ashes of a basilisk. However, when UV-radiation is strong as in regions close to the equator the lower concentration of melanin leads to several medical disadvantages, such as a higher risk of skin cancer. The MC1R recessive variant gene that gives people red hair generally results in skin that is unable to tan. In Africa, for example, red hair is selected against because high levels of sun harm untanned skin. The condition, part of a syndrome known as kwashiorkor , is a sign of critical starvation caused chiefly by protein deficiency, and is common during periods of famine. According to the map, around 10 per cent of the population of Scotland, Ireland and Wales boast a carrot top. What better time to ponder the prevalence of redheads around the world? Because of the natural tanning reaction to the sun's ultraviolet light and high amounts of pheomelanin in the skin, freckles are a common but not all-inclusive feature of red-haired people. In several countries such as India , Iran , Bangladesh and Pakistan , henna and saffron are used on hair to give it a bright red appearance. Redheads today are commonly associated with the Celtic nations  and to a far lesser extent the Germanic peoples. According to Britain's DNA, Red hair frequency is especially significant among the Riffians from Morocco and Kabyles from Algeria,    respectively. It primarily referred to Dutch traders who were the only Europeans allowed to trade with Japan during Sakoku , its year period of isolation. Red hair is also found amongst the Ashkenazi Jewish populations. Hucknall, who says that he has repeatedly faced prejudice or been described as ugly on account of his hair colour, argues that Gingerism should be described as a form of racism.
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Mary Greenwell: How to do timeless makeup for redheads
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